root's blog

Last Minute Tips To Crack IAS Prelims

(UPSC Prelims)
Last Minute Preparation Tips

Before appearing in IAS Prelims, the last days preparation becomes more crucial. Aspirant have to pull himself together and speed up to win. If you are ready for the marathon of Prelims then consider few last minute tips for IAS Prelims exam.

Preparation Planning in less than a month: Study Management is the key factor of your study and even more important when you have shortage of time. We know that Syllabus is huge and one cannot revise the entire syllabus just before the competition. Most importantly you must go through important topics from exam oriented approach in both Paper I (General Studies) & Paper II (Aptitude Test).

सामान्य अध्ययन: आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास - अंग्रेजों की भारत विजय (भाग - 1)

आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास

अंग्रेजों की भारत विजय (British Conquest in India)
(भाग - १)

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Modern-Indian-History.pngअंग्रेजों की भारत विजय के सन्दर्भ में विभिन्न विद्वानों द्वारा मुख्यतः दो मत प्रस्तुत किये जाते है । प्रथम मतानुसार, यह विजय निरुद्देश्य आकस्मिक एवं अनभिप्रेरित थी। इस मत के प्रणेताओ का मुख्य तर्क यह है कि ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी एक व्यापारिक कंपनी थी, जो राजनीतिक महत्वकांक्षाओ से बहुत दूर थी । इसका मुख्य उद्देश्य व्यापार करना था । किन्तु संयोगवश यहाँ की राजनितिक परिस्तिथियों ने उन्हें भारतीय राजनितिक संघर्ष कि लिए प्रेरित किया । परिणामस्वरूप वे भारतीय राज्यों से युद्ध कर उनका विलय करने के लिए बाध्य हो गए । उन्हें अपनी व्यापरिक महत्वाकांक्षाओं की पूर्ती एवं अपने व्यक्तित्व हितों की सुरक्षा के लिए भी यहाँ की क्षेत्रीय शक्तियों से युद्ध करना पड़ा ।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (पर्यावरण एवं पारिस्थितिकी) - बायोम, पारिस्थितिकी संरचना एवं क्रियाशीलता

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
पर्यावरण एवं पारिस्थितिकी (Environment and Ecology)

पर्यावरण, बायोम, पारिस्थितिकी संरचना

 

परि + आवरण

  • हमारे चारों ओर का तरफ का वातावरण
  • हम और हमारे चारों तरफ के वातावरण को पर्यावरण कहते है।
  • जैविक और अजैविक घटकों से निर्मित वातावरण को पर्यावरण कहते है।
  • जैविक और अजैविक घटकों से निर्मित वातावरण जिसका मानव एक महत्वपूर्ण घटक होता है।

पर्यावरण के प्रकार

1. प्राकृतिक पर्यावरण - मानव हस्तक्षेप रहित - जैसे कि, अण्डमान निकोबार के जंगल।
2. आर्थिक पर्यावरण - इसमें मानव की आर्थिक क्रियाओ का अध्ययन किया जाता है। प्राकृतिक पर्यावरण को ही संशोधित कर दिया जाता है, आर्थिक क्रियाओं का अध्ययन किया जाता है।

सामान्य अध्ययन (सामान्य विज्ञान) - यांत्रिकी (न्यूटन के गति के नियम - Newton's Laws of Motion)

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
यांत्रिकी (Mechanics)

न्यूटन के गति के नियम (Newton's Laws of Motion)

गति का प्रथम नियम (First Law of Motion)


जड़त्व का नियम (Law of Inertia): "यदि कोई व्यक्ति स्थिर अवस्था (विराम की अवस्था) में है तो वह स्थिर अवस्था में ही रहेगी और यदि वस्तु एकसमान गति की अवस्था में तो वह समान रूप से गतिशील ही रहेगी, जब तक कि उस वस्तु पर कोई बाह्य बल कार्यरत न हो।" वस्तु के विरामावस्था में रहने या एकसमान वेग से गतिशील रहने की प्रवृति अथार्त अपनी मूल अवस्था को बनाये रखने की प्रवृति को जड़त्व (Inertia) कहा जाता है।

जड़त्व के कुछ उदाहरण

1.जब कोई गाड़ी विरामावस्था से अचानक चलना शुरू करती है, तो इसमें बैठे यात्री जड़त्व के कारण अपनी विरामावस्था की स्थिति को पूर्ववत रखना चाहते है किन्तु गाड़ी के अचानक गतिक अवस्था में ही आते ही यात्री पीछे की ओर झुक जाते है।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (सामान्य विज्ञान) - यांत्रिकी (वृत्तीय गति - Circular Motion)

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
यांत्रिकी (Mechanics)

वृत्तीय गति (Circular Motion)गति (Motion)

वृत्तीय गति (Circular Motion): ' जब कोई वस्तु किसी वृत्ताकार मार्ग पर गति करती है तो इसे वस्तु की वृत्तीय गति कहा जाता है।"

एकसमान वृत्तीय गति - (Uniform Circular Motion): "जब कोई वस्तु एक निश्चित बिन्दु को केन्द्र मानकर उसके चारो ओर वृत्तीय पथ पर समान चाल(constant speed) से गति करती है तो उसकी गति एकसमान वृत्तीय गति कहलाती है।"

कोणीय विस्थापन (Angular Displacement) : "जब कोई कण वृत्ताकार मार्ग पर गति करता है तो अपनी प्रारम्भिक स्थिति   के सापेक्ष, कण जितने कोण से घूम जाता है उसे कोणीय विस्थापन कहा जाता है।

  • कोणीय विस्थापन एक सदिश राशि होती है।
  • कोणीय विस्थापन का मात्रक 'रेडियन' (Radian) होता है।

हिंदी में आईएएस पाठ्यक्रम: यूपीएससी मुख्य परीक्षा

आईएएस मेंस एग्जाम सिलेबस

यूपीएससी मुख्य परीक्षा का उद्देश्य अभ्यर्थियों के शैक्षिक कौशल और उनकी क्षमता को उनके ज्ञान को एक सटीक और उचित तरीके से बताए जाने का आकलन करना है। मुख्य परीक्षा में उनकी जानकारी और स्मृति की जगह उनके सामान्य बौद्धिक व्यक्तित्व और उम्मीदवारों की समझ की गहराई का विश्लेषण करना है।

यूपीएससी ने 2017 सिविल सेवा परीक्षा के लिए तारीख की घोषणा की है। इस वर्ष की प्रारंभिक परीक्षा 18 जून 2017 को आयोजित की जाएगी और मुख्य परीक्षा 28 अक्टूबर 2017 को होगी। पाठ्यक्रम में कोई बदलाव नहीं है। मुख्य परीक्षा मौजूदा पाठ्य-सूची के साथ नौ पत्रों के साथ जारी रहेगी।

आईएएस मुख्य परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम: जीव विज्ञान (वैकल्पिक विषय)

आईएएस मेन एग्जाम सिलेबस

जीव विज्ञान (वैकल्पिक विषय)

 

पेपर - I


Non-Chordata और Chordata

(A) उप-वर्गीकरणों तक वर्गीकरण और विभिन्न फ़ाइलाओं का संबंध: एकोलोमेट और कोलोमेट, प्रोटोटोम्स और ड्यूटोरोस्टोम्स, बिलेटिया और रेडियेट; प्रोटिस्टा, पैराोजोआ, ओनिकॉफ़ोरा और हेमिक्र्डटा की स्थिति; सममिति
(B) प्रोटोजोआ: लोकोमोशन, पोषण, प्रजनन, लिंग; सामान्य सुविधाओं और पैरामाइअम, मोनोसिस्टिस, प्लॉस्डियम और लीशमैनिया का जीवन इतिहास।
(C) पोरिफेरा: कंकाल, नहर प्रणाली और प्रजनन।
(D) सीनिडारिया: बहुरूपता, रक्षात्मक संरचनाएं और उनके तंत्र; प्रवाल भित्तियों और उनके गठन; मेटाजेनेसिस; सामान्य सुविधाओं और Obelia और ऑरलिया के जीवन का इतिहास
(E) प्लेटिहेल्मंट्स: परजीवी अनुकूलन; सामान्य लक्षण और फ़ैसियोला और तैनिया के जीवन इतिहास और उनके रोगजनक लक्षण

आईएएस मुख्य परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम: लोक प्रशासन (वैकल्पिक विषय)

आईएएस मेन एग्जाम सिलेबस

लोक प्रशासन (वैकल्पिक विषय)

 

पेपर - I


प्रशासनिक सिद्धांत

परिचय: लोक प्रशासन का अर्थ, दायरा और महत्व; लोक प्रशासन की विल्सन की दृष्टि; अनुशासन का विकास और इसकी वर्तमान स्थिति; नया लोक प्रशासन; सार्वजनिक विकल्प दृष्टिकोण; उदारीकरण, निजीकरण, वैश्वीकरण की चुनौतियां; सुशासन: अवधारणा और अनुप्रयोग; नया सार्वजनिक प्रबंधन।

प्रशासनिक विचार: वैज्ञानिक प्रबंधन और वैज्ञानिक प्रबंधन आंदोलन; शास्त्रीय सिद्धांत; वेबर के नौकरशाही मॉडल - इसकी आलोचना और पोस्ट-वेबरियन विकास; गतिशील प्रशासन (मैरी पार्कर फोल्लेट); मानव
रिलेशंस स्कूल (एल्टन मेयो और अन्य); कार्यकारी (सी। आई। बर्नार्ड) के कार्य; साइमन के निर्णय लेने वाले सिद्धांत; साझेदारी प्रबंधन (आर। लिकर्ट, सी। अरगीरिस, डी। मैकग्रेगर)।

आईएएस मुख्य परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम: भौतिक विज्ञान (वैकल्पिक विषय)

आईएएस परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम

भौतिक विज्ञान (वैकल्पिक विषय)

 

पेपर - I


(क) कणों की यांत्रिकी: गति के नियम; ऊर्जा और गति का संरक्षण, घूर्णन फ्रेम, केन्द्रापसारक और कोरिओलिस त्वरण के लिए आवेदन; एक केंद्रीय बल के तहत गति; कोण गति का संरक्षण, केपलर के कानून; फ़ील्ड और क्षमताएं; गुरुत्वाकर्षण क्षेत्र और गोलाकार निकायों, गॉस और पॉसॉन समीकरणों के कारण संभावित, गुरुत्वाकर्षण आत्म-ऊर्जा; दो-शरीर की समस्या; कम द्रव्यमान; रदरफोर्ड बिखरने; द्रव्यमान और प्रयोगशाला संदर्भ केंद्र फ्रेम

(बी) कठोर निकायों की यांत्रिकी: कणों की प्रणाली; द्रव्यमान का केंद्र, कोणीय गति, गति के समीकरण; ऊर्जा, गति और कोणीय गति के लिए संरक्षण प्रमेयों; लोचदार और असहनीय टक्कर; कठोर शरीर; स्वतंत्रता की डिग्री, यूलर के प्रमेय, कोणीय वेग, कोणीय गति, जड़ता के क्षण, समानांतर और सीधा अक्ष के प्रमेय, रोटेशन के लिए गति का समीकरण; आणविक रोटेशन (कठोर निकायों के रूप में); डी और त्रि-परमाणु अणुओं; प्रेरक गति; शीर्ष, जीरोस्कोप

CSAT Study Kit: सीसैट स्टडी किट प्रारंभिक परीक्षा पेपर - II (2017)

आईएएस प्रारंभिक परीक्षा
सीसैट CSAT (Paper - 2)

Hindi Medium CSAT Study Kit for IAS Prelims Exam
  • Rs. 2,499/- Only. Rs. 6000  (60% OFF)
     
  • पृष्ठों की संख्या : 1200+ पृष्ठ

  • पुस्तिकाओं की संख्या : कुल सात (5) कंप्यूटर मुद्रित एवं संकलित पुस्तिकाएं

Buy Now!

General Studies (Medieval Indian History) - Political Conditions, Trade, Society, and Education (800 - 1200 AD)

EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA (800 - 1200 AD)


The Age of Conflict (1000 – 1200 AD)

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Medieval-Indian-History.png

Religious Movements and Beliefs (8020 – 1200 AD)


Buddhism: Buddishm was gradually confined to eastern India. The Pala rulers were patrons of Buddhism and with their decline, Buddhism lost royal patrongae. The rise of Mahayanism and its deviation from the teachings of the Buddha aslo contributed in certain measure to the decline of Buddhism. The Palas patronized Mhayana from of Buddhism.

Jainism: jainism continued to be popular, particulary among the trading communities. The Chalukyan ruler of Gujarat patronized Jainism and built the Dilwara temple at mount Abu and many other Jain temples. The Paramara rulers of Malwa also built many huge images of Jain saints and Mahavira was worshiped as a god. In South India, Jainism attained its high water mark during the 9th and 10th centuries and the Ganga rules of Karnataka were great patrons of Jainism. The statue of Gomateswara in Sravanabelagola made of granite was built in this time. In course of time, the growing rigidity of Jainism and the loss of royal patronage led to the decline of Jainism.

Hinduism: there was a revival and expansion  of Hinduism and it took many forms. Shiva and Vishnu became the chief gods. Many local gods and goddesses incuding those of tribals became Hinduized. In eastern India, the consorts – Tara, the consort of Buddha, Durga the consort of Shiva, themselves became the chief objects of worship. There was a process of cultural synthesis and in an era of lotical disintegratin, religion played a positive part, But the religious revival also  increased the power of the brahmins which resulted in a series of popular movements which emphasized the element of human equality and freedom, such as Tantrm, Bhakti movement and Virshaivism.

सामान्य अध्ययन (आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास) - भारत में यूरोपीय कंपनियों का आगमन

आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास

भारत में यूरोपीय कंपनियों का आगमन
Arrival of European Companies in India

पुर्तगालियों का भारत आगमन


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Modern-Indian-History.pngभारतीय इतिहास में व्यापर - वाणिज्य की शुरुआत हड़प्पा काल से मानी जाती है । भारत की प्राचीन सांस्कृतिक विरासत, आर्थिक संम्पन्नता, आध्यात्मिक उपलब्धियां, दर्शन, कला आदि से प्रभावित होकर मध्यकाल में बहुत से व्यापारियों एवं यात्रियों का यहाँ आगमन हुआ । किन्तु 15वीं शताब्दी के उत्तरार्ध एवं 17वी शताब्दी के पूर्वार्ध के मध्य भारत में व्यपार के प्रारंभिक उद्देश्यों से प्रवेश करने वाली यूरोपीय कंपनियों ने यहाँ की राजनितिक, आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक नियति को लगभग 350 वर्षो तक प्रभावित किया । इन विदेशी शक्तियों में पुर्तगाली प्रथम थे । इनके पश्चात डच अंग्रेज डेनिश तथा फ्रांसीसी आये । डचों के अंग्रेजो से पहले भारत आने के बावजूद ब्रिटिश ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी की स्थापना डच ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी से पहले हुई ।

General Studies (Modern Indian History) Indian States Which Came up During This Period - (PART - 3)

Modern Indian History


SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE

The 18th century failed to deliver on economic, social and cultural fronts. There were certain development but they were inadequate and limited to certain centers. There were also areas where instead of progress, further deterioration of socio-cultural and economic status was observed. The deterioration is now majorly accredited to the heavy revenue demands of the state, greed of the nobles, zamindars, marching of the armies and counter marching of the rival armies.

NOTE: THIS IS PART THREE OF THIS ARTICLE. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ FROM START.

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Modern-Indian-History.pngAGRICULTURE


India agriculture during 18th century was technically backward and stagnant. The techniques of production had stayed stationary for centuries. However, the peasantry tried to balance the lack in technique by working hard in order to sustain the exploitative revenue farming regime (explained earlier). Unfortunately, the peasants were not able to reap the benefits of their hard work. Even though their produce was the major source of income for whole of india, they were the ones deprived of their produce with high taxes which amounted to approx 50% of their produce. This mechanism was almost followed everywhere by all rulers – Mughals, Marathas, indidual successors of Mughal state and even the Sikh chiefs.

General Studies (Modern Indian History) Indian States Which Came up During This Period - (PART - 2)

Modern Indian History


INDIAN STATE WHICH CAME UP DURING THIS PERIOD

The weakening of both Mughals and Marathas provided an opportunity for the British to increase control over the country and replace both the powers. However, there were smaller states which needed to be annexed first. These were being governed autonomously after the disintegration of Mughal Empire.

NOTE: THIS IS PART TWO OF THIS ARTICLE. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ PART ONE.

PUNJAB – SIKHhttp://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Modern-Indian-History.png


Founded at the end of 15th century by the first Sikh Guru (Guru Nanak), Sikh religion spread amongst Jat peasants and Lower castes of Punjab. Sikhs became a military fighting group under the 6th Guru – Guru Hargobind (1604-1645). It was however under the leadership of 10th Guru Gobind Singh that Sikhs Became a military and political Force. Therefore since 1699, Guru Gobind Singh waged continuous wars against Aurangzeb in which he lost all his family.

After Guru Gobind Singh’s death, the institution of Guruship came to an end. However , the last Guru passed on the leadership to his trusted disciple Banda Singh, who was more widely known as Banda Bahadur. He rallied together the peasants and lower castes from Delhi to Lahore to wages an unequal struggle against Mughals. Finally Banda was killed in 1715.

The failure of the struggle against Mughals was attributed to two reasons:

1. Inability to woo the upper castes and zamindars as they still remained loyal to Mughals.

2. Inability to include followers of all religions in the struggle.

After this Punjab continued to be ruled by Mughals till Nadir Shah and Abdali plundered India. The political vacuum created by the loss of leadership after death of Aurangzeb and also after Nadir Shah’s and Abdali’s raids gave Sikhs the time to rise again. Between 1765 and 1800, Sikhs acquired Punjab and Jammu. They were organized into 12 Misls (confederacies). These Misls supported each other in every way.

General Studies (Modern Indian History) Indian States Which Came up During This Period - (PART - 1)

Modern Indian History


INDIAN STATE WHICH CAME UP DURING THIS PERIOD

The weakening of both Mughals and Marathas provided an opportunity for the British to increase control over the country and replace both the powers. However, there were smaller states which needed to be annexed first. These were being governed autonomously after the disintegration of Mughal Empire.

HYDERABAD http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Modern-Indian-History.png


The state of Hyderabad was founded by the Nizam-ul-mulk Asaf Jah I in 1724. He had come back from Delhi in 1722 after getting frustrated with the policies of Muhammad Shah. He was a leading noble from the times of Aurangzeb. Also he was rewarded with the viceroyalty of Hyderabad for the important role he played in getting rid of Sayyid brothers.

He Suppressed all opposition to his viceroyalty in Deccan till 1724 and when his attempts to reform the Mughal Empire were dismissed by Muhammad Shah, he went back to Deccan where his supremacy was uncontended. He never declared independence from central authority but acted like an independent ruler. He waged wars, concluded peace & gave jagir without reference to central authority.

He made several reforms under his reign like:
1. Equal status to Hindus (Puran Chand was his Dewan)
2. Forced big zamindars to pay allegiance to him
3. Even tried to free revenue collection from corruption
But after his death in 1748, the Plague that had gulped Delhi had its effect on Hyderabad as well.
The way the nizam had freed himself from the central authority, the same way the Nawab (Deputy Governor) had freed himself from the control of Nizam. Nawab Sadatullah khan had made his nephew Dost Ali Khan the Nawab making the Nawabship Hereditary. Later repeated struggles for the Nawabship among various forces provided an opportunity for the British to take control of Hyderabad.

How to Read NCERT books for IAS Exam

How to study NCERT books for Civil Service Preparation


Why Read NCERT?

Why we should read NCERT books, this is the question which we will be dealing in this article. Well, if I talk on this question definitely I can say that NCERT books are those books which forms the basic of you knowledge on any subject.

How to study NCERT?


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/NCERT_logo.pngPublished by Government, Research and Workshops, study material prepared by renowned professors from JNU, DU, HU and other Central Universities etc. Class VI to XII provides sound footing and integrative foundation for Civil service exam whether you sincerely studied it in School time or not just start it now and it will not take much time to understand the concepts and basics at this level. UPSC consider NCERT books as a standard that is followed because, NCERT books are available both in Hindi Medium as well as in English Medium across the country in Rural and Urban areas, accessible to all selections of society. Most of the toppers and successful candidates follow NCERT books for their Preliminary as well s Mains exam preparation and they recommend for it.

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Modern Indian History) Decline of the Mughal Empire 1707 – 1757

Modern Indian History


DECLINE OF MUGHAL EMPIRE: 1707 – 1757

Aurangzeb, the last Great Mughal emperor had-died and left his Empire in chaos. The leadership that emerged was weak and ineffective. Therefore, from then onwards the Empire descended into anarchy whenever an emperor was dead. It opened opportunities for not only the royal princes but also whoever was influential enough to rule the Empire. A similar thought had taken shape in the minds of Zulfiqar khan & Sayyid brothers (nobles in Mughal court) who witnessed the ineffectiveness of the Mughal rulers before them. History is replete with such people who rise whenever a weakness in the old leadership became apparent. Thus began the era of NOBLES in Indian history where rulers became puppets and the real decision making power was with the nobles.

CSAT (Paper - 2) Study Kit for IAS Prelims - 2017

IAS PRELIMS
CSAT (PAPER - 2)

CSAT Paper - 2 Study Kit for IAS Prelims Exam
  • Rs. 2,499/- Only. Rs. 6,500 (60% OFF)
     
  • Number of Pages: 1650+
  • Number of Booklets: Total - 5 (Five well compiled booklets of printed study material)

Buy Now!

Study Kit Details


General Studies (Medieval Indian History) - The Age of Conflict (1000 – 1200 AD)

EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA (800 - 1200 AD)


The Age of Conflict (1000 – 1200 AD)http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Medieval-Indian-History.png

The Ghaznavids


Alaptgin: The Samanid Empire ruler by people of Iranian descent in areas of Transoxiana, Kharasan and Parts of Iran had many Turkish  slaves who acted as governors One such Turkish slave who rose to the position of a Samanid governor was Alaptgin. He in course of time established and idnependet kingdom with its capital as Ghazni. The Samanid kingdom soon ended and the Ghanznavids took over the task of defending the Islamic lands form the Central Asian tribesmen. Alaptgin alos came into conflict with the Hindushahi rulers who ruled in areas of Afghanistan to Punjab with their capital at Walihind (Ohinda).

Yearly Current Affairs (Study Kit) for IAS Prelims - 2017

Current Affairs Study Kit for IAS Prelims Exam
12 Month Current Affairs for IAS Prelims
  • Rs. 1799/- Only. MRP 5000 (65% OFF)
     
  • Number of Pages: 700+
  • Number of Booklets: Total - 7 (Seven well compiled booklets of printed Current Affairs)

Buy Now!

Half Yearly Current Affairs (Study Kit) for IAS Prelims - 2017

Current Affairs Study Kit for IAS Prelims Exam
6 Month Current Affairs for IAS Prelims

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Medieval Indian History) - The Tripartite Struggle: 8th to 10th Centuries

EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA (800 - 1200 AD)


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Medieval-Indian-History.pngThe Tripartite Struggle: 8th to 10th Centuries

Between 750 AD and 1000 AD three empires dominated the political scene in India. These were the  Palas who dominated eastern India till the middle of the 9th century; the Pratiharas who dominated the western part of India and the upper gangetic valley till the middle of the 10th century, and the Rashkrakuta empire, which dominated the deccan and also controlled the territory in north and south India at various times. They were involved in conflict among themselves, but provided stable conditions of life over large areas and gave patronage to arts and letters of the three, the rashtrakuta empire lasted the longest, it was also the most powerful empire of the three and acted as a bridge between north and south India in economic as well as cultural matters.

Palas: Ruled in areas of Bihar and Bengal with  capital at Mongyr (Munger).

Gopala: The death of Sasanka of Gauda created anarchy and confusion in Bengal, whereupon the notable men of Bengal elected Gopala as King in 750 AD. Gopala thus set up the pala Kingdom. Gopala was an ardent Buddhist and set up the Odantapuri Vihar (modem Bihar Sharif).

Dharmpala: Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharampala. Dharampala was defeated by the Rashktrakuta ruler Dhruva –III who also defected the Pratihara ruler vatasraja. But, Dhruva returned to the Deccan were upon Dharampala accupied Kannauj but could not consolidate his control over it as Pratihara power revived under Nagabhata II who defeted Dharampala near Mongyr.

Devapala: The son of Daharmpala succeeded him. He extended control over Prayag jyotispur (Assam) and also part of Orissa and probably during his reign, some part of Vihara at Nalanda was constructed by Balaputradev, a Sailendera ruler of Sumitra, Java and Malaya.

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Indian Polity) - Parliamentary and Presidential Systems of Government

Parliamentary and Presidential Systems of Government

The two most popular forms of government are Parliamentary and Presidential. India has adopted for the Parliamentary form of government. In this chapter, we shall see the features of both the systems.

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/indian-polity.pngPARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT


There are more Parliamentary systems in the world than Presidential democracies. As the name suggests, in the Parliamentary form of government, the parliament is supreme and the Executive, comprised of some members of the Parliament, is directly accountable to it. The examples of this system involves voters selecting parliamentary representatives. The party that wins the largest number of congressional seats then selects the head of government who is varyingly known as the Prime Minister, Chancellor, or Premier.

FEATURES OF PARLIAMENTARY FROM GOVERNMENT


A Parliamentary government is also known as the Cabinet form of government because the cabinet is the real Executive in it. It is also called ‘Responsible government ‘, Since the Cabinet always remains responsible to the Legislature for its activities. The salient features of Parliamentary form of government are as follow:

1. Close relationship between the Legislature and the Executive: In India, there is a close relationship between the Executive, i.e. the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head and the Legislature, i.e. the Parliament. The Council of Ministers is elected from amongst the members of the Parliament which means that the Executive emerges out of the Legislature.

2. Responsibility of the Executive to the Legislature: Since the Legislature gives birth to the Executive, the Legislature has the authority to hold the Executive responsible for all its actions. Thus the Council of Ministers is responsible to Lok Sabha. It is responsible to Rajya Sabha also. The responsibility is further conditioned through its collectivity i.e. the responsibility of every Minister is the responsibility of the entire Council of Ministers.

3. Dual Executive: The Parliamentary form of government provides for two Executives – the real Executive and the nominal or titular Executive. The nominal Executive is represented by the head of the State who may either be a hereditary or an elective one; legally, the head of the State possesses all powers and privileges which the Constitution and laws may confer upon him. But in practice, all powers are exercised by the real Executive represented by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.

How to choose optional subjects for civil services exam

Selecting Right Optional Subject for Civil Services Exam

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/choose-optional.pngThrough this article, I would like to interact with Civil Services Aspirants about the strategy for the IAS examination.

Friends, the foremost important thing is the duration of preparing this examination, Ideally the time to start the preparation is 10-12 months before the exam.
Selecting optional subject is most important part of the civil services examination which most of the candidates ignore. Generally, "A college student asks whether I should start preparing when I am studying in college itself."

Actually; I would suggest them that "Have Civil Services in back of your mind and just start preparing from Daily important news from various news papers like The Hindu, Indian Express, Economic Times, related magazines like Yojana, Kurukshetra, Frontline for in-depth analysis of current issues and events in India & World,  and think about selecting your Optional Subject". Optional subjects are those which you have to study for couple of years during your preparation for this exam. So, if you don't like the optional subjects, or if you have selected the subject only for scoring purpose, you won't be comfortable in studying them.

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा: टेस्ट सीरीज प्रोग्राम - Postal Test Series for IAS Prelims in Hindi Medium (General Studies) Paper 1

Hindi Medium General Studies Test Series Programme for IAS Prelims
  • Rs. 1799/- Only. Rs. 5000 (OFFER PRICE)
     
  • पृष्ठों की संख्या : 350+ पृष्ठ

  • पुस्तिकाओं की संख्या : कुल पंद्रह (15) कंप्यूटर मुद्रित एवं संकलित पुस्तिकाएं

Buy Now!

Printed Study Material for IAS Pre General Studies and CSAT (COMBO) Paper - 1 & 2

आईएएस मुख्य परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम: इतिहास (वैकल्पिक विषय)

आईएएस परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम

इतिहास (वैकल्पिक विषय)

मुख्य परीक्षा के लिए इतिहास के पाठ्यक्रम में दो पत्र हैंI पेपर 1 में प्रारंभिक प्राचीन इतिहास से  अठारहवीं शताब्दी तक कवर किया जाता है। पेपर 2 यूरोपीय प्रवेश से भारत में शुरू होता है और 1990 में सोवियत संघ के विघटन के लिए पूरे आधुनिक भारतीय इतिहास को कवर करता है। पेपर 1 में 24 parts हैं, जबकि पेपर II के 27 parts हैं। दिए गए इतिहास  पाठ्यक्रम I और II का विस्तृत वर्णन है:

आईएएस मुख्य परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम: भूगोल (वैकल्पिक विषय)

आईएएस परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम

भूगोल (वैकल्पिक विषय)

यह सिलेबस  सिविल सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा के भूगोल - Geography (वैकल्पिक विषय) का है और इसमें 2 पेपर शामिल हैं। 500 अंकों के साथ प्रत्येक पेपर 250 अंकों का है।

पेपर - I : भूगोल के सिद्धांत


भौतिकी भूगोल: भू-आकृति विज्ञान: भूमि के विकास को नियंत्रित करने वाले कारक; एंडोजेनेटिक और एक्सोजेनेटिक बलों; पृथ्वी की परत की उत्पत्ति और विकास; भौगोलिकतावाद की बुनियादी बातें; पृथ्वी के इंटीरियर की भौतिक स्थितियों; जीओसिंक्लिनिस; महाद्वीपीय बहाव; Isostasy; प्लेट टेक्टोनिक्स; पहाड़ की इमारत पर हाल के विचार; वालकैनिटी; भूकंप और सुनामी; भौगोलिक चक्र और लैंडस्केप विकास की अवधारणा; निंदा कालक्रम; चैनल आकारिकी; क्षरण सतह; ढलान विकास; एप्लाइड जियोमोर्फोलॉजी: भूहायोलॉजी, आर्थिक भू-विज्ञान और पर्यावरण

http://iasplanner.com/e-learning/sites/default/files/logo_0.png
Join Free IAS Planner e-Learning

Enter your e-mail address in the Box given below and press Subscribe button to join.



NOTE: Check your Email after Subscribing and click on confirmation link to activate your subscription.
X
+ Need Help! Click Here!
Helpline : 95 60 76 84 41 or Email at iasplanner.com@gmail.com

Give us your Feedback.

How helpful this website is for you. Your Feedback is Important for us.:

What's New!