(General Science) BIOLOGY - Main Branches of Biology and Fields of Biology

GENERAL SCIENCE: BIOLOGY


WHAT IS BIOLOGY?

The science which deals with the study of living objects and their life processes is called biology (Greek words, bios – life, logos – study). It covers all aspect of the study of living creatures like occurrence, classification, ecology, economic importance, external form, organization, internal structure, nutrition, health and other body functions, reproduction, life history, inheritance and origin. Being broad – based and multi- disciplinary, the term biology is often replaced by the term life sciences or biological sciences. Aristotle is known as the ‘Father of biology’. The term biology was coined by Lamarck.

There are three major branches of biology – botany, zoology and microbiology. Botany is the branch of biology which deals with the study of different aspects of plants. Theophrastus is known as the father of Botany. Zoology is the branch of biology connected with the study of different aspects of animals. Aristotle is known as the father of Zoology.  Microbiology is the branch of biology dealing with the study of different aspects of microorganism. Leeuwenhoek is known as the father of Microbiology.

MAIN BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY


Some of the main branches of biology are briefly discussed below:

1.  Taxonomy: It is the science of identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms.
2.  Morphology: It is the study of external form, size, shape, colour, structure and relative position of various living organ of living beings.
3.  Anatomy: It is the study of internal structure which can be observed with unaided eye after dissection.
4.  Histology: It is the study of tissue organization and structure as observed through light microscope.
5.  Cytology: It is the study of form and structure of cells including the behavior of nucleus and other organelles
6.  Cell Biology: It is the study of morphological, organizational, biochemical, physiological, genetic, developmental, pathological and evolutionary aspects of cell and its components.
7.  Molecular Biology: It is the study of the nature, physicochemical organization, synthesis working and interaction of bio-molecules that bring about and control various activities of the protoplasm.
8.  Physiology: It is the study of different types of body functions and processes.
9.  Embryology: It is the study of fertilization, growth, division and differentiation of the zygote into embryo or early development of living beings before the attainment of structure and size of the offspring.
10.  Ecology: It is the study of living organisms is relation to other organism and their environment.
11.  Genetics: It is the study of inheritance of characters or heredity and variations. Heredity is the study of expression and transmission of traits from parents to offspring.
12.  Eugenics: It is the science which deals with  factors related to improvement or impairment of race, especially that of human beings.
13.  Evolution: It studies the origin of life as well as new types of organism from the previous ones by modifications involving genetic changes and adaptations.
14.  Palaeontology: It deals with the study of fossils or remains and impressions of past organisms present in the rocks of different ages.
15.  Exobiology: It is the branch of scientific inquiry dealing with the possibility of life in the outer space.
16.  Virology: It is the study of viruses in all their aspects.

FIELDS OF BIOLOGY


1

Science

Organized form of Knowledge or systematic knowledge i.e. knowledge through process.

2

Biology

The branch of science which deals with the study of living beings.

3

Zoology

The branch of science which deals with the study of animals.

4

Morphology

The branch of science which deals with the study of total general structures and forms including shape, size and appearance.

5

Anatomy

The branch of science which deals with the study of internal structures after cutting or dissection.

6

Histology

The branch of science which deals with the study of tissue i.e. microscopic anatomy.

7

Cytology

The branch of science which deals with the study of cells and their organelles.

8

Acariology

Study of tics and mites.

9

Actinobiology

The branch of science which deals with the study of radiation effects on organism.

10

Aerobiology

Study of Flying organisms.

11

Agroforestry

This branch deals with form of land used on which herbaceous crops and trees crops are cultivated

12

Agronomy

Science which deals with the crop plants

13

Agrostology

Study of grasses.

14

Angiology

Science which deals with the study of blood vascular system.

15

Anthology

Study of flowers.

16

Anthropology

Study of apes and man.

17

Apiculture

Study of bee keeping

18

Araneology

Study of spiders.

19

Arthrology

Study of joints.

20

Aschelitinthology

Study of round worms

21

Bacteriology

Study of bacteria.

22

Batrachology

Study of frog.

23

Biochemistry

Branch of science which deals with the study of chemical reactions in relations to life activities.

24

Biometrics

Statistical analysis of different results of biological experiments.

25

Biotechnology

Use of biological organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs, vaccines and harmones etc.  on a large scale and at reasonable cost.

26

Bryology

Study of Bryophytes.

27

Carcinology

Study of crabs and crustaceans

28

Cardiology

Study of heart.

29

Chondriology

Study of Cartilage.

30

Chromatology

Study of Pigments.

31

Cnidology

Study of Coelenterata

32

Conchology

Study of shells.

33

Craniology

Study of skulls

34

Cryobiology

Study of effects on life at very lower temperature.

35

Dendrology

Study of shrubs and trees

36

Dermatology

Study of skin

37

Ecobiology

Study of problems of existence of life in outer space

38

Ecology

Study of relationship between organism and environment

39

 Embryology

Study of embryo i.e. developmental stages after fertilization or birth of young ones.

40

Endocrinology

Study of endocrine glands and their secretions

41

Entomology

Study of insects

42

Enzymology

Study of enzymes

43

Ethnology

Study of man-kinds

44

Ethology

Study of conditions of animals or behavior of animals, in a natural contest

45

Etiology

Study of diseases

46

Eugenics

Study of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity. It applied before birth. Eugenics is related with future generation.

47

Euphenics

Study of improvement of human race by drug treatment or gene engineering i.e. medical engineering of genetic disorder.

48

Euthenics

Study of improvement of human race by improving environment. It applied after birth and is related with present generation.

49

Evolution

The branch of science which deals with the study of origin of new from old i.e. origin, variation, inter-relationship between organisms of past and present days.

50

Exobiology

Space biology is also known as exobiology

51

Floriculture

Study of flower yielding plants

52

Genetics

Study of heredity and variations

53

Gerontology

Study of growing old

54

Gynaecology

Study of female reproductive organs

55

Haematology

Study of blood

56

Helminthology

Study of helminthes

57

Hepatology

Study of liver

58

Herpetology

Study of lizards and other reptiles

59

Hypnology

Study which deals with sleep

60

Histochemistry

Study of chemical nature of tissues

61

Horticulture

Study of flowering and fruits plants

62

Ichnology

Study of fossil footprints

63

Immunology

Study of resistance of organisms against infection

64

Kalology

Study of sensory or sensari-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste

65

Karyology

Study of nucleus

66

Lepidopterology

Study of moths and butterflies

67

Lichenology

Study of lichens

68

Limnology

Study of fresh water lakes, ponds and streams in relation with plants and animals

69

Malacology

Study of mollusks

70

Mammology

Study of mammals

71

Mastology

Study of breasts

72

Melanology

Study of pigments

73

Molecular Biology

Study of life sciences on molecular level (i.e. RNA and DNA level)

74

Mycology

Study of fungi

75

Myrmecology

Study of ants

76

Neonatology

Study of the new-born up to 1 month of age

77

Nephrology

Study of kidney

78

Neurology

Study of nervous system

79

Nidology

Study of nests of birds

80

Nisology

Study of diseases

81

Odontology

Study of teeth and gums

82

Olericulture

Study of vegetable yielding plants

83

Oncology

Study of cancer

84

Oneirology

Study of dreams

85

Ontogeny

Study of embryonic history

86

Oology

Study of egg of birds

87

Ophthalmology

Study of eyes

88

Organocology

Study of development of organs under embryology

89

Organology

Study of organs

90

Ornithology

Study of birds

91

Osteology

Study of bones

92

Otorhinolaryngology

Study of ear, nose and throat

93

Paedology

Study of larval stages

94

Palaezoology

Study of fossils and their distribution in time.

95

Palaeozoology

Study of fossils of animals

96

Palynology

Study of pollen grains in relation to taxonomy and evolution

97

Parasitology

Study of parasites

98

Pathology

Study of various diseases in human beings

99

Parazoology

Study of poifera (sponges)

100

Pedology

Study of soils

101

Pharmacognosy

Branch of science dealing with the medicinal plants

102

Pharmacology

Study of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms

103

Phenology

Study of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. of bird migration, opening of flowers etc.

104

Phrenology

Study of mental faculties of brain including feelings

105

Phycology (algology)

Study of algae

106

Phylogeny

Study of evolutionary history

107

Physiology

Study of functions of various parts within the organisms

108

Pisciculture

Study of rearing of fishes

109

Platyhelminthology

Study of flat worms

110

Pomology

Study of fruits

111

Poultry

Study which deals with keepings of foul

112

Proctology

Study of hind gut including rectum and anus

113

Protistology

Study of protests. Its field of study overlaps with more traditional disciplines of algology, mycology and protozoology

114

Pteridology

Study of pteridophytes

115

Rainology

Study of nose and olfactory organs

116

Saurology

Study of lizards

117

Sericulture

Silk industry concerned with culture of silk moth and pupa

118

Serology

Study of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood

119

Sepentology (Ophiology)

Study of snakes

120

Silviculture

Study of development of forests

121

Sitology

Study of dietetics

122

Speciology

Study of species

123

Spermology

Study of seeds

124

Splanchnology

Study of visceral organs

125

Stomatology

Study of forget including buccal cavity and stomach

126

Synecology

Study of bony joints and ligaments

127

Taxi dermatology

Study of skin and stuffing

128

Taxonomy

The breach of science which deals with the study of classification of organisms

129

Teratology

Study of foetal malformations

130

Torpedology

Study of skates and rays

131

Toxicology

Study of narcotics and the influence of narcotics on various organisms

132

Traumatology

Study of wounds and turnover

133

Trichology

Study of hair

134

Trophology

Study of nutrition

135

Urobiology

Study which deals with preservation of deals bodies in liquids by chemicals

136

Urology

Study of wine including diseases and the abnormalities of uninary and urino-genital tract

137

Virology

Study of virus

138

Zoogeography

The branch of science which deals with the study of distribution of animals on earth.

139

Biophysics

Study of physical aspects of living organisms

140

Cytogenetics

Study of cytological basis of inheritance

141

Ctetology

Study of acquired characteristics of organisms

142

Ichthyology

Study of fish and it’s culture

143

Kinesiology

Study of muscle movements

144

Phytogeography

Study of plants distribution on earth

145

Palaeobotany

Study of distribution and characteristics of fossils

146

Psychobiology

Study of behavioural aspects of animals

147

Sarcology

Study of muscles

148

Syndesmology

Study of bone joints and ligaments

149

Tectology

Study of structural organization of body

150

Zoophytology

Study of drifting micro-organisms such as diatoms.