UPSC Mains Hindi Language/Literature Syllabus - (Paper I & Paper II)
PART - I
Please note that all answers must be written in Hindi.
1.History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi.
- Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
- Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval period.
- Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
- Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
- Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
- Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
- The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
- Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
- Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter relationship.
- Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
- Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.
2. History of Hindi Literature.
- The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
- Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
A : Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.Prominent poets-Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati.
B : Bhaktikal-Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram
Prominent Poets-Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
C: Ritikal-Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya.
Prominent Poets-Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.
D : Adhunik Kal
a. Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
b. Prominent Writers : Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
c. Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad,
Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
Prominent Poets : Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.
III. Katha Sahitya
- Upanyas & Realism
- The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
- Prominent Novelists : Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
- The origin and development of Hindi short story.
- Prominent short Story Writers : Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Shobti.
IV. Drama & Theatre
- The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
- Prominent Dramatists : Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
- The development of Hindi Theature.
- The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
- Prominent critics : Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.
VI. The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatra-vrittant.
PART - II
This examination paper will require first hand reading of prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the candidates.
- Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)
- Surdas : Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
- Tulsidas : Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand).
- Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
- Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
- Maithili Sharan Gupta : Bharat Bharati
- Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
- Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).
- Dinkar : Kurushetra
- Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
- Muktiboth : Brahma Rakshas
- Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
- Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
- Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din
- Ramchandra Shukla : Chintamani (Part I)
(Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)
- Dr. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
- Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai, Manjusha - Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai
- Prasad : Skandgupta
- Yashpal : Divya
- Phaniswar Nath Renu : Maila Anchal
- Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
- Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)