General Science

सामान्य अध्ययन (सामान्य विज्ञान) - यांत्रिकी (न्यूटन के गति के नियम - Newton's Laws of Motion)

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
यांत्रिकी (Mechanics)

न्यूटन के गति के नियम (Newton's Laws of Motion)

गति का प्रथम नियम (First Law of Motion)


जड़त्व का नियम (Law of Inertia): "यदि कोई व्यक्ति स्थिर अवस्था (विराम की अवस्था) में है तो वह स्थिर अवस्था में ही रहेगी और यदि वस्तु एकसमान गति की अवस्था में तो वह समान रूप से गतिशील ही रहेगी, जब तक कि उस वस्तु पर कोई बाह्य बल कार्यरत न हो।" वस्तु के विरामावस्था में रहने या एकसमान वेग से गतिशील रहने की प्रवृति अथार्त अपनी मूल अवस्था को बनाये रखने की प्रवृति को जड़त्व (Inertia) कहा जाता है।

जड़त्व के कुछ उदाहरण

1.जब कोई गाड़ी विरामावस्था से अचानक चलना शुरू करती है, तो इसमें बैठे यात्री जड़त्व के कारण अपनी विरामावस्था की स्थिति को पूर्ववत रखना चाहते है किन्तु गाड़ी के अचानक गतिक अवस्था में ही आते ही यात्री पीछे की ओर झुक जाते है।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (सामान्य विज्ञान) - यांत्रिकी (वृत्तीय गति - Circular Motion)

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
यांत्रिकी (Mechanics)

वृत्तीय गति (Circular Motion)गति (Motion)

वृत्तीय गति (Circular Motion): ' जब कोई वस्तु किसी वृत्ताकार मार्ग पर गति करती है तो इसे वस्तु की वृत्तीय गति कहा जाता है।"

एकसमान वृत्तीय गति - (Uniform Circular Motion): "जब कोई वस्तु एक निश्चित बिन्दु को केन्द्र मानकर उसके चारो ओर वृत्तीय पथ पर समान चाल(constant speed) से गति करती है तो उसकी गति एकसमान वृत्तीय गति कहलाती है।"

कोणीय विस्थापन (Angular Displacement) : "जब कोई कण वृत्ताकार मार्ग पर गति करता है तो अपनी प्रारम्भिक स्थिति   के सापेक्ष, कण जितने कोण से घूम जाता है उसे कोणीय विस्थापन कहा जाता है।

  • कोणीय विस्थापन एक सदिश राशि होती है।
  • कोणीय विस्थापन का मात्रक 'रेडियन' (Radian) होता है।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (सा० विज्ञान) - यांत्रिकी (गति - Motion)

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
यांत्रिकी (Mechanics)

गति (Motion)

विराम एवं गति (Rest and Motion): यदि कोई वस्तु अपनी स्तिथि में किसी स्थिर वस्तु के सापेक्ष समय के साथ परिवर्तन करती है तो इसे वस्तु की गति अवस्था कहा जाता है। समय परिवर्तन के साथ तथा किसी स्थिर वस्तु के सापेक्ष यदि वस्तु अपनी स्तिथि में परिवर्तन न करे तो इसे वस्तु की विराम अवस्था (Resting State) कहा जाता है।

दूरी (Distance): सरल रेखीय गति (Straight Line Motion)  करती हुई वस्तु के द्धारा तय किये गए सम्पूर्ण मार्ग की लंबाई को दूरी (Distance) कहा जाता है।

विस्थापन  (Displacement): किसी वस्तु की अंतिम स्तिथि तथा प्रारंभिक स्तिथि के बीच की न्यूनतम दूरी को विस्थापन कहते है।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (सा० विज्ञान) - यांत्रिकी (मापन - Measurement)

सामान्य विज्ञान (General Science)
यांत्रिकी (Mechanics)

मापन (Measurement)

भौतिक राशियां (Physical Quantities)


किसी द्रव्य की सही स्तिथि या उचित मात्रात्मक स्तिथि को दर्शाने के लिए भौतिकी के जिन पदों का उपयोग किया जाता है, भौतिक राशियां कहलाती है। उदाहरण - द्रव्यमान (Mass), लंबाई (Height), समय (Time) आदि।

भौतिक राशियां दो प्रकार की होती हैं:
१. अदिश राशियां (Scalar Quantities)
२. सदिश राशियां (Vector Quantities)

1. अदिश राशियां (Scalar Quantities): वे भौतिक राशियां, जिन्हें व्यक्त करने के लिए केवल भौतिक परिमाण (magnitude) की आवश्यकता होती है, अदिश राशियां कहलाती हैं। उदाहरण: द्रव्यमान (Mass), दूरी (Distance) चाल (Speed) आयतन (Volume) घनत्व (Density) कार्य (Work) शक्ति (Power) ऊर्जा (Energy) आदि।

2. सदिश राशियां (Vector Quantities): वे भौतिक राशियां, जिन्हें व्यक्त करने के लिए परिमाण (Magnitude) के साथ साथ दिशा (Direction) की भी आवश्यकता होती है, सदिश राशियां कहलाती है । उदाहरण: विस्थापन (Displacement) वेग (Velocity) त्वरण (Acceleration) संवेग (Momentum) आवेग (Impulse) वैधुत क्षेत्र (Electric Field) आदि।

How to prepare Science & Technology for IAS Exam

Science & Technology for Civil Services Prelims and Mains Examination

Importance in Exam Point of View

Science and Technology in years have grown in relevance and has groomed a great width in its dynamics in the civil services examination. The role that general science plays in day to day life and hence with the development of the system has been marked majorly in both the pattern of UPSC Civil services exams that is prelims and mains. Thus, science and technology and general science have developed as a core prospect in the success story of the aspirants.

Comparative Analysis of Civil Services Prelim Paper - I (GS - Science & Technology)

Analysing Civil Services Prelims Exam
UPSC In-depth Question Analysis - General Studies (Pre)


Subject Year - 2011 Year - 2012 Year - 1013
Questions from Science & Technology 22 11 19
Questions from Geography + Environmental 24 24 26
Questions from Economics 18 13 19
Questions from Polity 11 16 16
Questions from History + Art and Culture 13 21 16
Questions from Miscellaneous 7 8 4
Questions from International Relation 5 1 0

Science & Technology

Now, look at Science & Technology and according to the previous years questions there are three broad classification we can make. One is on the areas of technology and Latest Development of Science & Technology which comes in the daily newspaper.

(Sample Paper) CSAT Paper - 1 : General Science

CSAT Paper - 1 Sample Paper

General Science

1. Why is platinum wire used inside very narrow glass rods ?
(a) Platinum expands very little compared to glass
(b) Platinum and glass have the same linear coefficients of expansion
(c) Glass is a bad conductor of heat
(d) Platinum does not melt at low temperature
Answer (B)

2. To a stationary man the frequency of a sound source moving towards the man appears to be
(a) lower than the original frequency
(b) same as the original frequency
(c) higher than the original frequency
(d) lower as well higher than the original frequency depending upon the speed of the source
Answer (B)

3. Choose the incorrect statement related to the laws of reflection :
(a) the reflected ray and the incident ray lie in the same plane
(b) the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal are concurrent
(c) the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
(d) none of these
Answer (D)

4. Identify the incorrect statement about the electric lines of force
(a) Two field lines cannot intersect each other
(b) The path traced by a positive charge is a field line
(c) Field lines are continuous in a medium
(d) A field line cannot intersect itself
Answer (B)

5. The temperature of a metal wire rises when an electric current is passed through it because :
(a) collision of conduction electrons with the atoms of metal gives them energy which appears as heat
(b) when electrons fall from higher energy level to lower energy level, heat energy is released
(c) collisions of metal atoms with each other releases heat energy.
(d) collisions of conduction electrons with each other releases heat energy.
Answer (A)

6. Neutron induced fission was discovered and explained respectively by
(a) Hahn and Strassman, Meitnem and Frisch
(b) Bohr, Fermi
(c) Fermi, Bohr
(d) Oppenheimer, Hahn and Strassman
Answer (A)

7. How does it happen that Pluto is not the farthest planet of the solar system at times ?
(a) Each planet becomes the farthest planet in its turn, sometimes it is the turn of Pluto.
(b) Pluto is always the farthest planet of the solar system.
(c) The sun is sometimes in the zodiac in which it is nearest to the outer planets.
(d) the eccentricity of Pluto’s orbit being substantial this orbit cuts the orbit of Neptune.
Answer (A)

8. Why are we able to hear short-wave broadcasts better than lone-wave broadcasts ?
(a) Short-wave broadcasts are made by nearby radio stations
(b) Short-waves are unaffected by atmospheric disturbances
(c) Short-waves are more energetic than long-waves
(d) By convention, short-waves are meant for long distances whereas long-waves are reserved for short distances
Answer (C)

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013 (Science & Indian History) : PART - 2

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013

SCIENCE & INDIAN HISTORY
(PART - 2)

Consider the following statements:
(1) The issue of protecting the Raiyats (farmers) started becoming more prominent from the middle of the 19th century when the growing commercial and industrial aims of the government were thought to necessitate new measures for the protection of the producing and rent paying classes.
(2) By the Bengal Tenancy Act of 1885, there was a strengthening of the position of peasants by placing restrictions on landlords’ power to enhance rents and evict their tenants.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Consider the following statements:
(1) Cornwallis Code of 1793 had strong basis and impact on judicial, administrative and zamindari system in India.
(2) During the Governorship of Cornwallis the last Peshwa Baji Rao ll was ruling over the Marathas.
(3) Aurangzeb discouraged popular practices in art and literature and Zatalli was a famous poet during his times.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Consider the following statements:
(1) When the Charter Act of 1883 came into being Bahadur Shah Zafar was the Mughal ruler.
(2) The composite and secular culture of “Phool Walon ki Sair”
Was greatly promoted by the later Maghal ruler Akbar Shahll.
(3) The practice of sericulture was greatly promoted by the British in the 17th Century India.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013 (Science & Indian History) : PART - 1

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013

SCIENCE & INDIAN HISTORY
(PART - 1)

Consider the following statements:
(1) The policy of free trade and utilitarianism was at the core of the Charter act of 1833.
(2) By the Charter Act of 1833, Sati practice was abolished from Bengal.
(3) Shah Alam ll was the Mughal ruler when the Charter Act of 1793 was passed.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Consider the following statements:
(1) By the Charter Act of 1813, the policy of cultural colonialism acquired a formal shape and character.
(2) The policy of oriental knowledge and learning involved active intervention into key social problems prevalent in India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Which of the following pre historic sites represents the earliest evidence of domestication of animals in India?
(a) Bagor
(b) Bhimbetka
(c) Chorand
(d) Koldihwa

Consider the following statements:
(1) The British East India Company’s monopoly over commercial and economic activities in India including over tea plantations was visible during Warren Hastings time.
(2) The British Parliament granted the supreme power fo governing India to the Secretary of State for India.
(3) The salary of India Office was charged upon Indian revenues till the Government of India Act 1919.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Consider the following statements:
(1) The Portuguese enjoyed administrative control over certain parts of India before the arrival of the British in India.
(2) The British had established political agents and British residents in all the important ruling powers in India by the beginning of the 18th century.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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