UPSC IAS Main 2017 - Philosophy Optional (Paper-1) Exam Paper - 2017

UPSC IAS Main Philosophy Optional (Paper-1) Exam Paper - 2017

  • Marks: 250

  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

  • Exam Name: UPSC Civil Services Main Philosophy Optional Exam

  • Exam Year: 2017


1.Write short answer to  the following in the about 150 words each: 10*5 = 50 Marks
1.(a) Elaborate Hegel's dictum : All identity and difference." (10 Marks)
1.(b) Explain Husserl's reasons for advocating phenomenological reductionism. (10 Marks)
1.(c) How is the statement, 'I met a man' , semantically problematic for Russell? How does he account for the meaningfulness of this statement? (10 Marks)
1.(d) In what sense can ideas be both immanent and transcendent? Discuss in this context Plato's theory of universals and particulars. (10 Marks)
1.(e) Show how Hume's analysis of experience leaves no ground for belief in permanent reality either physical or mental. (10 Marks)

2.(a) How is 'all bodies are extended' an analytic judgement but 'all bodies are heavy' a synthetic judgement? Is 'every event has a cause' an analytic or a synthetic judgement? Explain. (20 Marks)
2.(b) What is Wittgenstein's picture theory of meaning ? What are his reasons for giving up this theory and suggesting the use theory of meaning? (15 Marks)
2.(c) Explain Aristotle's theory of form and matter. How does it help him resolve the problem of change and permanence? (15 Marks)

3.(a) Elaborate Kant's theory of space and time. How does this theory enable him to explain how mathematical propositions can be both synthetic and a priori? (20 Marks)
3.(b) What, according to Descartes, is a 'clear and distinct idea' ? What is the epistemological status of clear and distinct ideas ? Does this account help Descartes prove that material objects exist? Explain. (15 Marks)
3.(c) what are the two dogmas of empiricism that Quine attacks ? What are his arguments against what he calls the second dogma? (15 Marks)

4.(a) How does Locke draw a distinction between primary and secondary qualities ? Does he also draw a distinction between the idea of primary qualities and primary qualities as well as the idea of secondary qualities and secondary qualities ? Discuss. (20 Marks)
4.(b) Does the sentence, 'Whatever is coloured is extended' , satisfy the criterion of meaningfulness proposed by the logical positivists? Explain. (15 Marks)
4.(c) Discuss Heidegger's concept of authenticity and explain how an inauthentic Dasein regains the lost self ? (15 Marks)


5. Write short answer to  the following in the about 150 words each: 10*5=50
5.(a) "The soul is nothing but conscious body." What are the reasons for Carvaka in holding this view? (10 Marks)
5.(b) what are the necessary characteristics of padartha according to Vaisesika philosophy? (10 Marks)
5.(c) Explain the necessary conditions of valid hetu as propounded in Nyaya philosophy? (10 Marks)
5.(d) What is meant by "yogascittavttinirodhah" ? Explain cittavrtti and its effects according to Yoga philosophy. (10 Marks)
5.(e) Elucidate the role of catuskoti in explaining the nature of reality according to Madhyamika school of thought. (10 Marks)

6.(a) Explain the early Nyaya definition of perception. Why this definition is considered inadequate by the later Naiyayikas? (20 Marks)
6.(b) "The Jaina metaphysics is relativistic and realstic pluralism. Discuss. (15 Marks)
6.(c) What are the arguments of the Buddhists to establish Ksanikavada? Do they necessarily lead to krtansa and akrtabhyupagama? (15 Marks)

7.(a) How do Madhyamikas, Yogacaravadins and Sarvastivadins differ among themselves concernig the nature of reality ? How do Saravastivadins differ among themselves concerning the nature of reality ? (20 Marks)
7.(b) How does Sri Aurobindo's intergral yoga help in the realization of supramental consciusness ? (15 Marks)
7.(c) Distinguish between vivartavada and parinamavada with refernce to causation and explain how in the light of these theories Sankara and Ramanuja differ on the status of the world. (15 Marks)

8.(a) Explain the theory of Validity of Knowledge (pramanyavada) according to Mimamsakas. How did they criticize the Nyara theory of Validity? (20 Marks)
8.(b) Explain Ramanuja's conception of God and examine the difficulties he faced in explaining the relation of God to matter and spirit. (15 Marks)
8.(c) Given its theory of causation, is its possible for Samkhaya to explain the presence of consciousness in the world ? Discuss. (15 Marks)

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