Important Topics: Post Sendai Initiatives and Way Forward
The 3rd UN world conference on disaster risk reduction, held in Sendai (Japan) in 2015, adopted a 15 year plan known as 'Sendai framework'. The Sendai Framework is a successor of Hyogo framework for action (2005) and it is the first UN agreement on the post 2015 development agenda. It has four priority areas:
- It has set targets for substantial reduction in losses such as reduction in number of deaths, economic losses etc.
- It calls for increase in capacities through national and local strategies, international cooperation and improved access to early warning.
- It calls for concrete indicators of progress towards these targets to be measured against the disaster losses in the decade after adoption of the 2005 Hyogo Framework of Action.
Indian government has taken up important initiative post Sendai declaration. These initiatives are as follows:
Important Initiatives (Post Sendai Declaration)
1. Indian successfully hosted the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Reduction (AM CDRR) in Nov’ 2016 and adopted 'New Delhi Declaration' & 'Regional Action Plan for Implementation of the Sendai Framework’. At the AMCDRR, PM of India outlined ten point agenda for implementation of disaster risk reduction which are:
i) Ensure that all development projects - airports, roads, canals, hospitals,
schools, bridges - are built to appropriate disaster resilient standards.
ii) Work towards risk coverage for all - starting from poor households to small and medium enterprises to multi-national corporations to nation states.
iii) Encourage greater involvement and leadership of women in disaster risk management.
iv) Invest in risk mapping globally for all hazards.
v) Leverage technology to enhance the efficiency of our disaster risk management efforts.
vi) Develop a network of universities to work on disaster issues.
vii) Utilize the opportunities provided by social media and mobile technologies.
viii) Build on local capacity and initiative.
ix) Ensure that the opportunity to learn from a disaster is not wasted. Establish a facility for technical support to post-disaster reconstruction of houses.
x) Bring about greater cohesion in international response to disasters.
2. GoI has issued a set of priority actions to all the State Government based on the goals, targets and priorities of Sendai Framework.
3. Strengthening of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) with in terms of state of the art training and equipment. Besides this, GOI has approved the creation of National Disaster Response Reserve (NDRR) through a revolving fund of Rs. 250 crore. This fund under NDRF will help it maintain a record inventory of emergency goods and services, comprising tents, medicines, food items etc.
4. Government expressed its keenness to share India's expertise and help other countries in disaster responses as it did in Japan earthquake (2011) and Nepal earthquake (2015).
Also, the GOI is making consistent efforts to promote regional cooperation by hosting the SAARC Disaster Management Centre to reduce disaster risk in the region and promoting knowledge sharing among SAARC countries.
Similarly, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), in Hyderabad provides early warning not only to India but also to 28 countries in Indian Ocean Rim.
5. Sendai framework underlines the need of capacity building and training which is an important component of investing in disaster risk reduction. There are two models of enhancing capacity which are:
a) Functional capacities: - needed to formulate, implement, and review policies strategies, programmes and projects. E.g. – NIDM has signed a MoU with JNU for establishment of a centre for Excellence in Disaster Research and Resilience Building.
b) Technical capacity: associated with particular areas of need and with particular sector requirements and themes. And after identifying the gaps in capacity of different stakeholders on the basis of their role in disaster management, training programmes should be developed.
Institutional Arrangements for Disaster Management
1. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) lays down policies, plans, and
guidelines to ensure timely and effective response for disaster and long term
2. NDMA have been directly undertaking various capacity building measures – such as mock drills and simulation exercises at district, state and regional level.
3. National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) also undertakes training along with research, documentation and development of National level information base.
4. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), a national level professionalized search and rescue force, is also engaged in training programme.
5. GOI also constituted a National Disaster Response Force Academy at National Civil Defence College, Nagpur for training of personnel involved in disaster management and response.
While, re-empliasizing that state has a primary role in reducing disaster risk, Sendai framework also calls upon other stakeholder including private sector to be involved in disaster preparedness and mitigation planning as well as relief and recovery phase.
Government and private hospitals can take a step forward and set up ‘Trauma Centres’ particularly to handle the cases of disaster. For example: Establishment of Apex Trauma Centre at AIIMS in 2006-07 for quality trauma patient. Jayaprakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre has all the specialties needed for trauma care with dedicated faculty and residents working 24 hours.
Conclusion: Disaster can be defined as "a serious disruption of the functioning of the society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope up using its own resources."
Therefore, for reducing disaster impact, especially in resource scarce nation, it is important to invest in risk reduction developing models so that we can move from disaster management to disaster risk management and the 'post Sendai initiatives' are way forward to this approach.
POSSIBLE QUESTION FROM EXAM POINT OF VIEW
There is urgent need for political commitments in the region towards devising future strategies for identification of risks, challenges, and equal distribution of scarce resources, so that one can achieve disaster risk management strategies. In the light of above statement, discuss post Sendai initiatives taken by India. (200 Words)