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IAS Prelims: General Studies (Ancient Indian History) - LITERATURES - Sources in the Gupta Period

Ancient Indian History

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.pngSources in the Gupta Period

Literature in Gupta Period

Gupta emperors patronized Sanskrit as the court language which was spoken by the higher classes while the lower classes and women spoke Prakrit.

(i) Secular literature
(ii) Religious literature
(iii) Scientific literature

1. Secular Literature


(a) Kalidas: He was the court poet of Chandragupta Vikramaditya ll. He was a great poet and dramatist. Considered as Shakespeare of the East His work include.

  • Abhijanasakuntalam considered to be one of the 100 best literary work in the world. Love story of king Dushyanta and Shakuntala whose son Bharatha became a famous ruler. William Jones translated this book into English and it filled the romantic imagination of Europe.
  • Malvikagnimitram- Pushyamitra Sunga’s son Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha. Mentions the defeat of a yavana ruler by Vasumitra, the son of Agnimitra on the banks of a river Sind (Kalisind).
  • Raghuvamsa- speaks of the allround victories of Rama, and may indirectly refer to some gupta conquests.
  • Kumarasambhav- deals with the courtship of shiva and parvati and the birth of their son skanda.
  • Meghadutam- lyrical poem containing the message from the love – lorn yaksha to his wife pining across the northern mountains in Alaka.
  • Ritusamhara- describes the six seasons in relation to Shringara.

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Ancient Indian History) - Post-Mauryan Period (2nd Century BC to 3rd Century AD)

Ancient Indian History

Post-Mauryan Period (2nd Century B.C to 3rd Century A.D.)http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.png

Inscriptions


(1) Junagarh rock inscription of saka ruler of Ujjain Rudradaman-I dated 150 AD describes the achievements of Rudradaman-I. This is the earliest inscription in chaste Sanskrit.

(2) A number of inscriptions have been found at Nasik associated with Satavahana rulers of Deccan.

(3) Besnagar pillar inscription from Vidisa talks about the pillar constructed by Heliodorus, an ambassador of Indo-Greek king of Taxila called Antialcides to the court of Sunga ruler of Vidisa, Kasiputra Bhagabhadra also called as bhagavata. The inscription is recorded in honour of god of gods vasudeva.

(4) hathigumpa inscription in Prakrit in Udayagiri hills of Orissa records the achievements of Kharavela.

(5) Sarnath inscription highlights the achievements of kanishka, the Kushana ruler.

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास) पाषाण युग की संस्कृति व जीवन-शैली - भाग - २

भारतीय इतिहास: पाषाण युग की संस्कृति व जीवन-शैली
(Culture or Lifestyle of the Stone Age)


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.pngमध्यपाषाण काल: जीवन शैली (Mesolithic Age : Lifestyle)

परिवर्तन (Changes)


मध्यपाषाण काल का आरंभ ई. पू. 8000 के आसपास हुआ। जलवायु गर्म व शुष्क हो गई। जलवायु परिवर्तन के साथ ही पेड़-पौधे और जीव- जंतुओ में भी परिवर्तन हुए और मानव के लिए नए क्षेत्रों की ओर अग्रसर होना सभंव हुआ।

  • यह पुरापाषाण काल और नवपाषाण काल के बीच का सक्रमण काल है।
  • मध्यपाषाण काल के मानव शिकार करके मछली पकड़कर और खाध वस्तुएँ एकत्रकर अपना पेट भरते थे तथा आगे चलकर वे पशुपालन भी करने लगे । इनमे शुरू के तीन पेशे तो पुरापाषाण काल से ही चले आ रहे थे पर अंतिम पेशा नवपाषाण संस्कृति से जुड़ा है।
  • अब न केवल बड़े बल्कि छोटे जानवरो का भी शिकार होने लगा।
  • औजार बनाने की तकनीक में परिवर्तन हुआ और छोटे पत्थरो का उपयोग किया जाने लगा।
  • इस काल के महत्वपूर्ण हथियार थे - इकधार फलक (Backed Blade) , बेघनी (Points), अर्ध चन्द्रकाल (Lunate) तथा समलम्ब (Trapeze) ।
  • महत्वपूर्ण स्थल: वीरभारपुर (पश्चिम बंगाल), लधनाज (गुजरात), टेरी समूह (तमिलनाडु), आदमगढ़ (म. प्र.), बागोर (राजस्थान), महादहा, सरायनहरराय (उ. प्र.) ।
  • इस काल में सामाजिक - आर्थिक जीवन में महत्वपूर्ण परिवर्तन हुआ। जनसँख्या में वृदि हुई और आखेट की सुगमता से मनुष्य अब छोटी- छोटी टोलियो में रहने लगा। स्थाई निवास की परंपरा शुरू हुई। पशुपालन एवं कृषि की शुरुआत हुई और मिटटी के बर्तन बनने लगे।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास) पाषाण युग की संस्कृति व जीवन-शैली - भाग - १

भारतीय इतिहास: पाषाण युग की संस्कृति व जीवन-शैली
(Culture or Lifestyle of the Stone Age)


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.pngपुरापाषाण काल : शिकारी और खाद्द संग्राहक (Palaeolithic Age: Hunters and Food Gatherers)

अपवाद स्वरूप दक्कन के पठार में मध्य पुरापाषाण काल और उच्च पुरापाषाण काल दोनों के औजार मिलते है। पुरापाषाण संस्कृति का उदय अभिनूतन युग में हुआ था। इस युग में धरती बर्फ से ढँकी हुई थी। भारतीय पुरापाषाण काल को मानव द्धारा इस्तेमाल किये जाने वाले पत्थर के औजारों के स्वरुप और जलवायु में होने वाले परिवर्तन के आधार पर तीन अवस्थाओ में बाँटा जाता है:

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Ancient Indian History) - Mauryan Period (321-184 BC)

Ancient Indian History

Mauryan Period (321-184 BC)http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.png

Archaeological Remains


(1) Use of Iron was on a more extensive scale
(2) Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) use continued with increase in variety number and area.
(3) Burnt bricks were used for the first time in the Mauryan period
(4) Ring well were also identified for the first time in the Mauryan Period.
(5) Even in the Mauryan period, we have no evidence of usage of gold coins. Rupyarupa and Pana were the silver coins whereas Tamarupa were the copper coins used in the Mauryan period.
(6) Many wooden palaces and halls were unearthed from the Mauryan period.

Kautilya’s Arthasastra: It is the most important Literary source of the Mauryan period. It is a book on political economy. It was written in Sanskrit ,Arthasastra was divided into 15 adhikarnas (parts). It gives us an idea of the functioning of the Mauryan state.

Megasthens’s Indica: Megasthenes was the greek ambassador of Selucus Nikator to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. His book indica is the foremost among all the foreign accounts for Mauryas.

Daily MCQs For IAS Prelims (9th March - 2017)

Civil Services Preliminary - 2017

Daily MCQs
(General Studies) Practice
MCQs

1. With reference to the Fourteenth Finance Commission, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It has increased the share of States in the central divisible pool from 32 percent to 42 percent.
2. It has made recommendations concerning sector-specific grants.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Daily Current Affairs with Gist of PIB (9th March - 2017)

National

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Aadhaar.jpgNo one to be deprived of benefits for lack of Aadhaar

  • Government has said that no one will be deprived of the benefits for lack of Aadhaar. In a statement issued today, the Government has reiterated that till Aadhaar number is assigned to any individual, the benefit will continue to be given based on alternate means of identification. It also directed the departments to provide Aadhaar enrolment facilities to their beneficiaries under Regulation 12 of Aadhaar (Enrolment and Update) Regulations 2016.
  • Considering the usefulness of Aadhaar in curbing leakages and bringing transparency in delivery system, the Government has recently issued orders to use Aadhaar in several other welfare schemes funded from the Consolidated Fund of India. While these orders require beneficiaries of these programs to give their Aadhaar number, it has also been ensured that no one is deprived of the benefits for want of Aadhaar.

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Ancient Indian History) - Pre-Mauryan Age 6th – 4th Century BC

Ancient Indian History

Pre- Mauryan Age (6th – 4th Century BC)http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.png

Punch-marked coins: The rise of the Mahajanapadas in the 6th century BC alongwith agricultural surplus, and the rise of arts and crafts which facilitated trade and commerce led to the appearance of coins for the first time in the pre-Mauryan.

Archaeological Remains


(i) Many urban centres such as indraprastha, hastinapura, shravasti, Varanasi, rajagriha, champa on the banks of rivers in north india.
(ii) Northern black polished ware (NBPW) type of pottery was the characteristic feature of this age.
(iii) Iron use increased in this period.
(iv) Mud bricks were used for the construction of cities.
(v) Punch- marked coins were used to facilitate trade and commerce.

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास) - साहित्यिक स्रोत

भारतीय इतिहास: साहित्यिक स्रोत (Literary Sources)


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.pngसाहित्यिक साक्ष्य के अंतर्गत साहित्यिक ग्रंथों से प्राप्त सामग्रियो का अध्य्यन किया जाता है। इन साहित्यिक साक्ष्यों को हम दो भागों में बांटते हैं:
(1) धार्मिक साहित्य तथा (2) लैकिक साहित्य

धार्मिक साहित्य में ब्राह्मण तथा ब्राह्मणेतर ग्रन्थ आते है। पुनः ब्राह्मण ग्रंथों में वेद, उपनिषद , रामायण, महाभारत, पुराण तथा स्मृतिग्रंथ आते है, जबकि ब्राह्मणेतर ग्रंथों में बौद्ध तथा जैन साहित्य का उल्लेख किया जा सकता है। इसी तरह लौकिक साहित्य में ऐतिहासिक ग्रंथों, जीवनियाँ, कल्पना - प्रधान तथा गल्प साहित्य आते है।

Daily MCQs For IAS Prelims (8th March - 2017)

Civil Services Preliminary - 2017

Daily MCQs
(General Studies) Practice
MCQs

1. An electric current always produces a magnetic field and this effect of magnetism is used in medicine. Consider the following statements in this regard:
1. Even weak ion currents that travel along the nerve cells in our body produce a very strong magnetic field.
2. Two main organs in the human body where the magnetic field produced is significant, are the heart and the brain.
3. The magnetic field inside pie body forms the basis of obtaining the images of different body parts and it is done “by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Which of the statements-given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3

Daily Current Affairs with Gist of PIB (8th March - 2017)

National

CAG to undertake audit of demonetisation fallout

  • The Comptroller and Auditor General of India will soon begin an audit ofvarious aspects of demonetisation announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on November 8 last year.
  • The huge amount of data generated by banks and the Income-Tax Department in the wake of demonetisation would also be covered.
  • The CAG said he had conveyed to the government his stand on the recent move of the GST Council to delete section 65 of the preliminary draft that authorised CAG to audit GST (Goods and Services Tax).
International

WikiLeaks reveals CIA files describing hacking tools

  • WikiLeaks published thousands of documents described as secret files about CIA hacking tools the government employs to break into users's computers, mobile phones and even smart TVs from companies like Apple, Google, Microsoft and Samsung.
  • The documents describe CIA efforts - cooperating with friendly foreign governments and the US National Security Agency - to subvert the world's most popular technology platforms, including Apple's iPhones and iPads, Google's Android phones and the Microsoft Windows operating system for desktop computers and laptops. Some technology firms they were evaluating the information.
  • Microsoft Corp. said it was looking into the report, while the maker of secure messaging app Signal said the purported CIA tools affected users' actual phones and not its software design or encryption protocols.

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Ancient Indian History) - Vedic Period 1500 BC to 600 BC

Ancient Indian History

Sources: The sources of ancient Indian history are multifaceted varying from literature to coins and inscriptions to archaeological remains.


http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.png Vedic Period (1500 BC to 600 BC)

Information of the vedic period comes from vedic- literature. The scholars have divided the vedic period into the early vedic period and the later period. The only source of information which belongs to the early vedic is the Rig Veda. All the other components of the vedic literature belong to the vedic period. The vedic literature consists of the Samhitas, Aranyakas and Upanishads. There are also six vedangas and four Upa- Vedas . The samhitas are collections of hymns sung in the praise of various gods.

They are four in number:

  1. Rig Veda
  2. Sama Veda
  3. Yajur Veda
  4. Atharva Veda

Daily MCQs For IAS Prelims (7th March - 2017)

Civil Services Preliminary - 2017

Daily MCQs
(General Studies) Practice
MCQs

1. Paper industry plays a vital role in the socio­ economic development of any country. Consider the following statements in this regard
1. Per capita paper consumption is a yardstick to measure the modernilty.
2. The key social objective of the Government namely, eradication of illiteracy through compulsory primary education bears a direct relation with the paper industry.
3. The India paper industry plays a pivotal role in overall industrial growth and provides the vital vehicle needed to propel the knowledge based economy of the country in the new millennium.
4. Dependency on paper is more eco friendly than on electronic.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1,2 and 3 only
(b) 2,3 and 4 only
(c) 1,3 and 4 only (d) 1,2, 3 and 4

Daily Current Affairs with Gist of PIB (7th March - 2017)

National

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Indian-Flag.pngTricolour on tallest flag mast installed near Attari border

  • A 360-foot- high (110 metres) flag post, said to be the country's tallest, was inaugurated at the Indo-Pak Attari Border, just a stone's throw from Pakistan.
  • Punjab Minister Anil Joshiinaugurated the country's largest tricolour on the tallest flag post - measuring 110 metres in length, 24 metres in width and 55 tons in weight.
  • At present, the tallest flag is in Ranchi (300-foot high).
  • Built at an approximate cost of Rs 3.50 crore, the post was a project of the Amritsar Improvement Trust Authority of the Punjab Government.

Daily Current Affairs with Gist of PIB (6th March - 2017)

National

UIDAI plugging data leak: Author

  • In the dock for writing an article on the “security loopholes” in the Aadhaar system, Sameer Kochhar, head of a Gurgaon-based think tank, says he has only done his “patriotic duty” and the Unique Identification Authority of India has taken corrective measures after his “expose”.
  • Mr. Kochhar is the author of Modinomics, a book on the development model followed in Gujarat when Narendra Modi was Chief Minister.
  • “I have only done my patriotic duty by writing a story on the vulnerability in the Aadhaar system, based on the inputs and evidence received.
  • UIDAI has not only accepted the vulnerability but is also working overtime to take corrective action to make Aadhaar more secure.

Daily MCQs For IAS Prelims (5th March - 2017)

Civil Services Preliminary - 2017

Daily MCQs
(General Studies) Practice
MCQs

1. Consider the following statements with regards to the Rashtriya Aarogya Nidhi Scheme:
1. The scheme is under the union Ministry of Health and family welfare, Government of India to provide financial assistance to the BPLpatients through AADHAAR.
2. The scheme provides financial assistance up to Rs 1.5 lakh rupees to BPL patients suffering from life threatening diseases in the form of a one-time grant.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Daily Current Affairs (4th March - 2017)

National

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/farmer-suicides.pngSupreme Court takes government to task over farmer suicides

  • The Supreme Court expressed grave concern over farmers’ suicide due to indebtedness andcrop failure and said it felt the government was going in a “wrong direction” in tackling the real problem.
  • Chief Justice J.S. Khehar said the issue of farmers’ suicide was of “extreme importance” and paying compensation to the families of such victims “post-facto” was not the real solution.
  • “Farmers’ suicides have been happening for so many decades and it is surprising that no action has been taken to address the causes behind suicides.”
  • The Bench, also comprising Justices D.Y. Chandrachud and S.K. Kaul, said “if the matter is moved on a right track, a lot can be achieved” andfixed the plea for further hearing on March 27.

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास) - पुरातत्विक स्रोत

भारतीय इतिहास: प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास के स्रोत


इतिहासकार एक वैज्ञानिक की भाँति उपलब्ध सामग्री की समीक्षा करके अतीत का सही चित्रण करने का प्रयास करता है। उसके लिए साहित्यिक सामग्री, पुरातात्विक साक्ष्य और विदेशी यात्रियों के वर्णन सभी का महत्व है।

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/ancient-history.pngप्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास के अध्य्यन के लिए पूर्णत: शुद्ध ऐतिहासिक सामग्री विदेशी की अपेक्षा अल्प मात्रा में उपलब्ध है। यधपि भारत में यूनान के हेरोडोटरश या रोम के लिवी जैसे इतिहासकार नहीं हुए, अतः कुछ पाश्चात्य विद्धानों की यह मानसिक धारणा बन गई थी कि भारतीयों को इतिहास कि समझ ही नहीं थी। लेकिन, ऐसी धारणा बनाना भारी भूल होगी। वस्तुत: प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास की संकल्पना आधुनिक इतिहासकारो की संकल्पना से पूर्णत: अलग थी। वर्तमान इतिहासकार ऐतिहासिक घटनाओ में कारण - कार्य संबंध स्थापित करने का प्रयास करते है लेकिन प्राचीन इतिहासकार केवल उन घटनाओ या तथ्यो का वर्णन करता था जिनमे आम जनमानस को कुछ सीखने को मिल सके।

Daily Current Affairs (3rd March - 2017)

National

http://www.iasplanner.com/civilservices/images/Antyodaya-Express.pngAntyodaya Express


  • Indian Railways introduced the first Antyodaya Express between Ernakulam and Howrah viz. 22877/22878 Ernakulam-Howrah Antyodaya Express (Weekly).
  • The train service was inaugurated on 27.02.2017 by Minister of Railways through video conferencing from Rail Bhawan, New Delhi. As announced in Railway Budget 2016-17, Antyodaya Express are long-distance, fully unreserved, super fast train service, for the common man to be operated on dense routes.

IAS Prelims: General Studies (Ancient Indian History) - Periodisation & Eras

Ancient Indian History

Periodisation of Ancient Indian History


Palaeolithic Age 5,00,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C. (i) Early or lower Palaeolithic Phase

(ii) Middle Palaeolithic Phase 50,000 B.C. to 40,000 B.C.

(iii) Upper Palaeolithic Phase 40,000 to 10,000 B.C.

Mesolithic Age 9,000 B.C. to 4,000 B.C.  
Neolithic Age 5,000 B.C. to 1,800 B.C.  
Chalcolithic Age 1,800 B.C. to 1,000 B.C.  
Iron Age Started from 1,000 B.C. onwards.  
Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) 2,900 B.C. to 1,700 B.C. (i) Early Harappan phase 2,900 B.C. to 2,500 B.C.

(ii) Middle Harappan Phase (Mature Harappan Phase) 2,500 to 2,000 B.C.

(iii) Late Harappan Phase 2,000 B.C. to 1,700 B.C.

Vedic Period 1,500 B.C. to 600 B.C.  
Pre-Mauryan Age 6th Century B.C. to 300 A.D.  
Mauryan Age 321 B.C. to 184 B.C.  
Post-Mauryan Age 200 B.C. to 300 A.D.  
Gupta Period 4th Century A.D. to 6th Century A.D.  
Age of Harsha 606 A.D. to 647 A.D.  
Chalukyas of Badami 543 A.D. to 755 A.D.  
Pallavas of Kanchipuram 560 A.D. to 903 A.D.  

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - मूल अधिकार व विशेषतायें

Polity

राज्यव्यवस्था : मूल अधिकार (Fundamental Rights)


ये अमेरिका से लिए गये है और संविधान के भाग (3) में Article 12 - Article 35 तक पाये जाते है। ये वो अधिकार हैं जो व्यक्ति के भौतिक व नैतिक विकास के लिए अनिवार्य माने जाते है व जिन्हें संविधान का विशेष संरक्षण प्राप्त है। भारत में अधिकारों को हम निम्न भागों में बांट सकते हैं:
  • मौलिक: संविधान के भाग 3 में वर्णित है। (Art. 12 - 35)
  • सवैधानिक अधिकार: संविधान में भाग 3 से बाहर प्राप्त अधिकार, Art. - 300A - संम्पत्ति का अधिकार, Art. 301 अंतर्राज्जीय व्यापार अधिकार।
  • क़ानूनी / विधिक अधिकार: जो संसद के कानून की देन है - (मातृत्व अवकाश, सेवा का अधिकार, मतदान अधिकार)।
  • मानवाधिकार: ये वे अधिकार है जो व्यक्ति को राज्य का नागरिक होने के नाते नहीं बल्कि मानव होने के नाते प्राप्त होते हैं, ये मानवीय गरिमापूर्ण जीवन के लिए अतिआवश्यक है। ये मानव होने की अनिवार्य शर्त है अतः प्रत्येक मानव को जन्म से ही प्राप्त है भले ही संविधान / कानून उन्हें स्वीकारें या नहीं।

Daily MCQs For IAS Prelims (28th February - 2017)

Civil Services Preliminary - 2017

Daily MCQs
(General Studies) Practice
MCQs

1. Consider the following statements regarding monsoon climate:
1. Monsoon climate is the result of the shifting of pressure and wind belts.
2. Monsoons are surface convective systems which are originated due to differential
heating and cooling of the land and water (ocean) and thermal variations.
3. Monsoon climate region are more developed in northern Australia and southern USA than Indian Sub Continent and south east Asia.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3

Daily Current Affairs (28th February - 2017)

National

Enforcement Directorate issues fourth summon to Zakir Naik

  • The Enforcement Directorate (ED) has issued fresh summons, to controversial Islamic preacher Zakir Naik in connection with its money laundering probe case against him and others.
  • They indicated that the latest summons could well possibly be the last issued  to him and the agency may move court for an arrest warrant against him, if he again chooses to ignore the summons.
  • Naik, through his lawyer, had made a proposal to depose via video link some days back even as he apprehended that he could be arrested by he agency like his aide Aamir Gazdar.
  • “My client is willing and ready to give any statement before you via Skype or any other mode of electronic media to assist you in your investigation,” a letter sent by Naik, also the founder of NGO Islamic Research Foundation (IRF), through his lawyer Mahesh Mule had said.

Study Kit for SSC CGL Exam (Tier -I) - 2017

Study Kit for SSC CGL (Tier -I) - 2017

SSC CGL Study Kit - 2017Dear Aspirants,

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You can rely fully on this study kit, as it will cover 100% syllabus of the exam. All you need to purchase this, go through it and digest it and the result will be in front of you to see. This study kit will help you out in your preparation on every step including right guidance by our experts.
 

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - प्रस्तावना का महत्व व मूल्यांकन

Polity

राज्यव्यवस्था : प्रस्तावना का मूल्यांकन


इसका महत्व

  • यह सरकार के मार्गदर्शक का कार्य करती है।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - पंथनिरपेक्षता, संसदीय / राष्ट्रपतिय लोकतंत्र तथा गणराज्य

Polity

राज्यव्यवस्था: पंथनिरपेक्षता,संसदीय लोकतंत्र एवं अध्यक्षात्मक / राष्ट्रपतिय लोकतंत्र


पंथनिरपेक्षता (Secularism)


  • पंथनिरपेक्षता से तात्पर्य ऐसी व्यवस्था से है जिसमे राज्य का कोई राजकीय धर्म ना हो।
  • नागरिको के बीच धर्म के आधार पर भेदभाव नहीं।
  • प्रत्येक नागरिक चाहे वह किसी भी धर्म का हो, धार्मिक स्वतंत्रता का अधिकार प्राप्त हो।

भारत एक पंथनिरपेक्षता / धर्मनिरपेक्ष देश के रूप में:

  • संविधान भारत को पंथनिरपेक्ष घोषित करता है।
  • भारत में राज्य का कोई राजकीय धर्मं नहीं है।
  • भारत में समता का अधिकार एक मौलिक अधिकार है जिसमे धर्म के आधार पर भेदभाव नहीं होगा।

Indian Polity: Constitution of India (Fundamental Rights) Part - 1

Indian Polity: Constitution of India

(FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS)

Basics of the Fundamental Rights


It covered in the Part III of the Indian Constitution (Under article 12 to article 35). It has largely been incorporated from Bills of Rights of USA constitution and also called as Magna Carta of Indian Constitution because it is Justiciable or Enforceable in a court of law. This is the elaborated fundamental rights description in entire world.

They do not do any discrimination among the citizens of India on the base of  colour, religion, sex etc. It holds the equality of all individuals, the dignity of the individual, the larger public interest and unity of the nation. It promotes ideal of political democracy and prevent the establishment of an authoritarian despotic rule in the country, and protect the liberties and freedoms of the people against the invasion by the State.

It also aim at establishing 'a government of laws and not of men'. Rule of law has three components i.e. Supremacy, Classes to same law and Impartial and powerful judiciary.

स्टडी किट: सामान्य अध्ययन प्रारंभिक परीक्षा पेपर-1 (2017)

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