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Indian Polity and Governance

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - प्रस्तावना


राज्यव्यवस्था : प्रस्तावना (Preamble)

यह संविधान के लिये आमुख की तरह है जिससे संविधान के उद्देश्यों, आदर्शों, शासन प्रणाली के स्वरूप व संविधान लागू होने का वर्णन होता है।

प्रस्तावना लिखित संविधान की विशेषता मानी गयी है। पंडित जवाहरलाल नेहरू ने 13 दिसम्बर 1946 को संविधान सभा में प्रस्ताव रखा व संविधान सभा ने इसे 22 जनवरी 1947 को स्वीकार कर लिया व यह प्रस्तावना बन गयी।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - भारतीय संविधान के स्रोत


राज्यव्यवस्था : भारतीय संविधान के स्त्रोत

हमारे संविधान के विशालतम होने के प्रमुख कारण।

  • संविधान निर्माता हर विषय को स्पष्टता के साथ रखना चाहते थे, ताकि भविष्य में विवाद कम हों।
  • भारत के संविधान में प्रांतों का संविधान भी शामिल है, जो इसे व्यापक बना देता है।
  • भारत में भाषायी बहुलता।
  • भारतीय समाज में अस्पष्यता, अनुसूची जाति / जनजाति से संबंधित परिस्थितियों ने संविधान की व्यापकता में योगदन दिया है।

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - भारतीय संविधान की विशेषताएं


राज्यव्यवस्था : भारतीय संविधान की विशेषतायें

भारतीय संविधान लिखित व निर्मित है। इसका वर्गीकरण हम निम्न प्रकार से कर सकते हैं:-

(अ) लिखित : USA, India
अलिखित : Britain

(ब) निर्मित :  USA, India
विकसित : Britain

(स) कठोर / अनम्य : USA

मिश्रण → भारत

लचीला / अनम्य : Britain

प्रारंभिक परीक्षा : सामान्य अध्ययन (राज्यव्यवस्था) - संविधान का परिचय व वर्णन


राज्यव्यवस्था : भारत का संविधान

संविधान उन प्रावधानों का संग्रह है, जिसके आधार पर किसी देश का शासन चलाया जाता है।

राज्यव्यवस्था (Polity)

राज्यव्यवस्था संविधान का अनुप्रयोग है जब संविधान को किसी देश में लागू किया जाता है तो संविधान को लागू करने के क्रम में जो कानून सरकार के निर्णय और संस्थायें उभर कर सामने आती हैं उन्हे सामूहिक रूप से राज्यव्यवस्था कहते हैं।

Indian Polity and Constitution - (Introduction)

Indian Polity: Introduction

(For Prelims & Mains)

Syllabus of Examination

  • CSE Prelims: Indian Polity and Governance, Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy and Right Issues.

  • CSE Mains: Paper III (GS Paper - 2): It includes Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, International Relations.

Note: We have already suggested in our previous related articles that aspirants must read the entire syllabus first before appearing in this examination. Because it is too large and we can't put it here and you can get it from UPSC's official website which is available for free.

Indian Polity: Constitution of India (Fundamental Rights) Part - 3

Indian Polity: Constitution of India

PART - 3

Attention: This is part 3 of this article, If you want to read from start Click Here

List of the Articles 12-35

12. Definition of State
13. laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights.

Right to Equality

14. Equality before law
15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or birth place
16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
17. Abolition of untouchability
18. Abolition of titles

Right to Freedom

19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences
21. Protection of life and personal liberty
21A. Right to education
22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right Against Exploitation

23. Prohibition of traffic in human being and forced labour
24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
26. Freedom to manage religious affair
27. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion
28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights

29. Protection of interests of minorities
30. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
31. Compulsory acquisition of property - (Repealed)

Saving of Certain Laws

31A. Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations
31C. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles
31D. Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities - (Repealed)

Right to Constitutional Remedies

32. Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this part
32A. Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under Article 32 - (Repealed)
33. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this part in their application to forces, etc.
34. Restriction on rights conferred by this part while martial law is in force in any area
35. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this part

Indian Polity: Constitution of India (Fundamental Rights) Part - 2

Indian Polity: Constitution of India

PART - 2

Attention: This is part 2 of this article, If you want to read from start? Click Here!

Definition of State : (Article - 12)

It includes Government and Parliament of India, that is, executive and legislative organs of the Union Government. Government and legislature of states, that is, executive and legislative organs of state government. All local authorities, that is, municipalities, panchayats, district boards, improvement trust etc. All other authorities, that is, statutory or non-statutory authorities like LIC, BHEL, SAIL, GAIL etc. or even a private body or an agency working as an instrument of the State.

It is the actions of these agencies that can be challenged in the courts as violating the Fundamental Rights.

Indian Polity: Constitution of India (Fundamental Rights) Part - 1

Indian Polity: Constitution of India


Basics of the Fundamental Rights

It covered in the Part III of the Indian Constitution (Under article 12 to article 35). It has largely been incorporated from Bills of Rights of USA constitution and also called as Magna Carta of Indian Constitution because it is Justiciable or Enforceable in a court of law. This is the elaborated fundamental rights description in entire world.

They do not do any discrimination among the citizens of India on the base of  colour, religion, sex etc. It holds the equality of all individuals, the dignity of the individual, the larger public interest and unity of the nation. It promotes ideal of political democracy and prevent the establishment of an authoritarian despotic rule in the country, and protect the liberties and freedoms of the people against the invasion by the State.

It also aim at establishing 'a government of laws and not of men'. Rule of law has three components i.e. Supremacy, Classes to same law and Impartial and powerful judiciary.

Important Topics: Indian Polity: Constitution of India (SCHEDULES)

Indian Polity: Constitution of India


What is Schedule?

They are Lists which categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government. They are kept separate because it is more than 100 mages document and hence, not included in original text of constitution but they are very much part of the constitution. Originally they were  8 in number, now they are 12. IX (1st Constitution Amendment Act 1951), X (Anti-Defection Law 52nd CAA 1985), XI (73rd CAA Panchayati Raj 1992), XII (74th CAA Municipality 1992).

First Schedule

Part 1: Name of the state and their territorial jurisdiction (29 states). It conclude details regarding which law, act etc. determine each states boundaries (Article 1 to 4).

Part 2: Names of Union Territory and their extent. Delhi (since independence), Andaman and Nicobar Islands (since independence), Daman and Diu (1987), Lakshadweep, Puducherry (1960s) (French Establishments in India and combines Pondicherry, Kankal, Mahe and Yanam), Chandigarh (1966) , Dadar and Nagar Haveli.

Second Schedule

[Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221]

Provisions relating to emoluments, privileges, allowances and so on of:

  • President of India
  • Governors
  • Speaker, Deputy Speakers of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly in states.
  • Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha, Legislative Councils in states.
  • Judges of Supreme Court, High Court and CAG.
  • Official residence of judges without pay.
  • Vice-President or any other person is acting as President and any person is acting as Governor (based on salary).

Important Topics: Indian Polity and Constitution - (Source of Our Constitution)

Indian Polity and Constitution

A Brief Introduction and Historical Background
Source of Our Constitution)

Most of the provision of the Indian constitution have been borrowed from the constitution of several other countries as well as from the government of India Act 1935. Though sometimes this borrowing become a matter of criticism but no doubt the framers of our constitution deserve our gratitude for collecting the best features of other constitutions and modifying then in order to avoid the problems faced by them and making them suitable to the Indian Politico-Administrative system.

Important Topics: Indian Polity - Constitutional Bodies (UPSC)

Constitutional Bodies (Union Public Service Commission)

Article 315 provides there will be one UPSC and State public service commission for every state, however two or more states may agree to have joint PSC and in that case president shall be law provides for appointment of joint PSC.


  • Chairman and members of union public service commission are appointed by President.
  • Chairman and members of joint public service commission are appointed by President.
  • Chairman and members of state public service commission are appointed by governor.

As far as possible one half of the members of every public service commission should be those members which have held office for at least 10 years under the government of India or under the government of a state.

Strength of the commission

  • Number of member will declare by president in case of union public service commission.
  • Number of member will declare by governor in case of state public service commission.

मास्टर स्ट्रैटेजी : प्रारंभिक परीक्षा सामान्य अध्ययन - पेपर - 1 (भारतीय राज्यव्यवस्था एवं शासन)

सिविल सेवा प्रारंभिक परीक्षा की तैयारी कैसे करें?

मास्टर स्ट्रैटेजी: भारतीय राज्यव्यवस्था एवं शासन

इस खण्ड से वर्ष 2011 में 17 तथा वर्ष २०१२ में २२ प्रश्न पूंछे गये। इस प्रकार इस खण्ड से सर्वाधिक प्रश्न पूंछे गये, जो इस खण्ड के महत्व को ईंगित करते हैं। यह खण्ड इसलिये महत्वपूर्ण है क्योंकि इसी खण्ड के मध्यम से देश की शासन व्यवस्था एवं उससे सम्बन्धित संकल्पनाओं तथा प्रक्रियाओं की जानकारी मिलती है।

(Sample Paper) CSAT Paper - 1 : Indian Polity and Governance

CSAT Paper - 1 Sample Paper

Indian Polity and Governance

1. Habeas Corpus means:
(a) an order from a court to free a person who had been illegally detained by the police or any other person
(b) an order from a superior court calling up the record of a proceeding in an inferior court for review
(c) an order from the superior court to an official to show his right to the office
(d) an order from a higher court to stop proceedings in a certain case
Answer: (A)

2. Writ of Certiorari means
(a) an order to produce the body of a person
(b) a writ issued by a superior court calling up the record of a proceeding in an inferior court for review
(c) an order from the superior court to any official to show his right to the office
(d) an order from a higher court to stop proceedings in a certain case
Answer: (B)

3. Which of the following is not included in the list of Fundamental Duties (Article 51A) in the Constitution?
(a) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence
(b) Secularism
(c) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India
(d) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals
Answer: (B)

4. Regarding the powers and functions of the President it is not correct to say that
(a) all legislative proposals involving expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India have to be recommended by the President to the Parliament for consideration
(b) no money bill or demand for grant can be introduced or moved in the Parliament unless it has been recommended by the President
(c) The may direct the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court to take over a particular case for disposal
(d) he calls upon the party enjoying majority in the Lok Sabha to choose its leader who is then appointed as the Prime Minister
Answer: (C)

5. Which one of the following is not a judicial power of the President of India?
(a) He appoints the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court
(b) He can remove the judges of the Supreme Court on grounds of misconduct
(c) He can consult the Supreme Court on any question of law or fact which is of public importance
(d) He can grant pardon reprieves and respites to persons
Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the following is not a function of the Vice­President as ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha?
(a) He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha and conducts its business
(b) He protects the privileges of the members of Rajya Sabha
(c) He dissolves the Raja Sabha
(d) He acts as the spokesman of Rajya Sabha before the President and the Lok Sabha
Answer: (C)

Important Topics: Indian Polity and Constitution - (The Preamble)

Indian Polity and Constitution

(The Preamble)

The Preamble refers to the introduction or preface to the constitution. It contains the essence of the entire constitution. The Constituent Assembly first met on Dec. 9th, 1946 and the preamble to the Indian constitution based on the ‘Objective Resolution’ drafted and moved by Pandit Nehru on Dec. 13th, 1947.

Text of the Preamble

We, The People of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:-

  • JUSTICE - Social, Economic and Political;
  • LIBERTY - of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
  • EQUALITY - of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
  • FRATERNITY - assuring the dignity of the nation;

Important Topics: Indian Polity and Constitution - (Features of The Constitution)

Indian Polity and Constitution

(Features of The Constitution)

A. Lengthiest Written Constitution of the World

The constitution of India is the lengthiest of all the written constitutions of the world. Initially, it contained a Preamble, 395 Articles, 22 parts & 8 schedules. As of now, it has a Preamble, about 450 Articles, 24 parts and 12 schedules. Some of the factors leading to the elephantine nature of our constitution can be summarised as follows:

i) Since Government of India Act 1935 was adopted as a model for the Indian Constitution and it was a very voluminous document in itself. Thus it naturally made the constitution a lengthy document.

ii) The Indian constitution has elaborated provisional for Judiciary, Public Service Commissions, Election Commission, Controller and Auditor General of India etc. Which also makes it voluminous as compared to other constitutions.

iii) The Indian constitution has provisions regarding the administration of states. This is unlike the U.S. constitution where the state from their constitution separately. Since the federal constitutions is supposed to describe in details the rights and jurisdictions of the centre and the states. Thus making it more bulky in nature.

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013 (Geography & Indian Polity) : PART - 2

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013

(PART - 2)

Which of the following statements relating to the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha are correct?
(1) The Leader of the largest party in the Opposition in the Lok Sabha having strength of not less than one-tenth of the total membership of the Lok Sabha is recognized by the President as the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
(2) He enjoys the status equivalent to that of a cabinet Minister.
(3) He enjoys only statutory but not Constitutional recognition in the Lok Sabha.
(4) He is consulted by the Union Government while appointing the Central Vigilance Commissioner.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Match List-l with List-ll select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(Constitution Amendment Bill)

A. Constitution (115th Amendment )Bill 1. Insertion of Article 371J
B. Constitution(116th Amendment Bill) 2. Goods and Services Tax
C. Constitution (117th Amendment Bill) 3. Constitutional status to Lokpal
D. Constitution (118th Amendment Bill) 4. Reservation in Promotions

(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 2 4 3 1
(d) 1 3 2 4

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013 (Indian Polity & Geography) : PART - 1

IAS General Studies Test Series - 2013

(PART - 1)

Which of the following bodies has unanimously recommended that the Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation shall be appointed by a collegium headed by the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha and the chief Justice of India as its members?
(a) Central Vigilance Commission Rajya Sabha Select Committee
(b) Rajya Sabha Select Committee
(c) Joint Parliamentary Committee
(d) Lok Sabha Select Committee

Which of the following provisions seek to achieve the ideal of “Fraternity” as mentioned in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution?
(1) By following the Fundamental Duties
(2) By allowing Dual Citizenship to NRIs
(3) Pursuing the ideals of a ‘Secular’ State
(4) Single Citizenship
(5) By following the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948

Select the correct answer from teh codes given below:
(a) 1, 3and 5 only
(b) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1 and 4 only

Which of the following statements about Departmental Standing Committees in the Parliament is correct?
(1) Each Departmental Standing Committees consists of members elected by proportionl representation from each House of the Parliament
(2) Together, they cover all the ministries of departments of the government
(3) They examine demands for grants of the concerned department or ministry and suggest cut motions
(4) Their recommendation is only advisory in nature

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 3 only

The decision of the Supreme Court in the UP Power Corporation Ltd. Vs. Rajesh Kumar 2012 case, relating to constitutionality of reservation in promotion in favour of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in public employment, is based on which of the following cases?
(a) Indra Sawhney vs. Union of India 1992
(b) M. Nagaraj vs. Union of India2006
(c) Jasbir Rani vs. State of Punjab 2002
(d) None of the above

Match List-l with List-ll and select the correct answer from the codes given below:


(Type of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court)



A. Original Jurisdiction 1. Article 131
B. Revisory jurisdiction 2. Article 136
C. Appellate Jurisdiction 3. Article137
D. Advisory Jurisdiction 4. Article 143